The project establishes control mechanisms, such as the fact that the federal government must present a six-monthly report on the work of the Army and the Navy in public security.
With 87 votes in favor, 40 against and 0 abstentions, the Mexican Senate approved by a qualified majority the law reform initiative to keep the Armed Forces in public security tasks until 2028.
During the discussion, the factions of the opposition National Action (PAN) and Citizen Movement expressed their rejection of the project, while the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) and the Party of the Democratic Revolution (PRD) showed division in their ranks regarding the vote.
The initiative had the support of the ruling party Morena and its allies from the Labor Party and the Green Ecologist of Mexico (PVEM).
Prior to the debate and vote in the plenary session of the Upper House, the opinion of the reform was approved by the Constitutional Points and Second Legislative Studies Commissions.
There were modifications, after last September 21, when a previous opinion was being discussed in plenary session, Senator Ricardo Monreal, of the ruling Morena party, asked to suspend the debate, since by then there was not enough support to be endorsed. By implying changes to the Constitution, a qualified majority was required, that is, two thirds of the total number of seats (85 of the 128).
Thus, it was established that the Armed Forces must “training in civil police doctrineAccording to article 21 of the Constitution.
“The actions carried out by the permanent Armed Forces will in no case be intended to replace the civil authorities of other orders of government,” reads the text with modifications.
In the approved opinion, more control mechanisms were established, such as the federal government must submit a six-monthly report on the work of the Armed Forces in public security“providing quantifiable and verifiable indicators that allow evaluating the results obtained in terms of public security, and corroborate respect for human rights and those of indigenous and Afro-Mexican peoples and communities,” says a text published by the Senate.
It was also arranged to create a bicameral commission that monitors the performance of the uniformed and can summon high officials to appear.
Likewise, it was established that as of fiscal year 2024, the federal Executive will establish a support fund for states and municipalitiesaimed at strengthening its public security institutions.
One of the most important data of this reform is that it determines that the March 2028 deadline for the withdrawal of the Army and Navy from the streets cannot be extended.
With this reform, a transitory article is modified to extend the term that had been set for the participation of the Army and the National Navy in public security tasks.
Specifically, the Fifth Transitory Article of the “Decree amending, adding and repealing various provisions of the Political Constitution of the United Mexican States in Matters of the National Guard” is reformed, published in the Official Gazette of the Federation on March 26 of 2019.
In a legislative agreement made official on May 11, 2020 in the Official Gazette of the Federation, it was established that the presence of the Army in the streets would be maintained until March 27, 2024; With the reform, this power of the Armed Forces is extended until 2028.